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In Western countries, emoticons are usually written at a right angle to the direction of the text.

Users from Japan popularized a kind of emoticon called kaomoji (顔文字; lit.

Certain complex character combinations can only be accomplished in double-byte languages, giving rise to especially complex forms, sometimes known by their romanized Japanese name of kaomoji.

The use of emoticons can be traced back to the 17th century, drawn by a Slovak notary to indicate his satisfaction with the state of his town's municipal financial records in 1635, but they were commonly used in casual and humorous writing.

They offer another range of "tone" and feeling through texting that portrays specific emotions through facial gestures while in the midst of text-based cyber communication.

The word is a portmanteau word of the English words "emotion" and "icon".

Four vertical typographical emoticons were published in 1881 by the U. satirical magazine Puck, with the stated intention that the publication's letterpress department thus intended to "lay out ...

all the cartoonists that ever walked." In 1912, Ambrose Bierce proposed "an improvement in punctuation – the snigger point, or note of cachinnation: it is written thus ‿ and presents a smiling mouth.His designs were registered at the United States Copyright Office in 1997, and appeared online as files in 1998.In 1997, The Smiley Company filed a trademark application with the United States Patent and Trademark Office.Digital forms of emoticons on the Internet were included in a proposal by Scott Fahlman of Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in a message on 19 September 1982.The National Telegraphic Review and Operators Guide in April 1857 documented the use of the number 73 in Morse code to express "love and kisses" (later reduced to the more formal "best regards").This smiley presumably inspired many later emoticons; the most basic graphic emoticon that depicts this is in fact a small yellow smiley face.